Southwest steadfastly refuses to charge for bags (at least the first two bags). Their marketing campaign, “Bags Fly Free”, says it all. In the short run they are missing out on the profit from baggage fees. The total airline industry profit from baggage fee for last year was around $536 million. Southwest is betting on increasing capacity utilization by attracting and keeping customers who are fed up with all the extras while other airlines are training the customers to pay for the extras.
Before airlines started to unbundle their services customers viewed the service as a monolith as opposed to a “bundle”. My monolith, I mean, a product service that is marketed and perceived as one entity even thought it is made up of different components. A bundle, on the other hand, is put together from several components, is marketed as a sum of its parts and is perceived by customers as such. Unbundling has changed the perception of airline travel from a monolith to a bundle – a bundle consisting of:
- the main component – the ticket
- convenience of paper ticket
- convenience of seat selection
- ease of boarding
- check-in bags
- and in one extreme case – use bathrooms
So what Southwest sells with its “Fees Don’t fly with us” is a bundle in which every component of the bundle except the ticket is marketed as free. What is the danger of throwing in freebies with bundles? According to consumer behavior researchers from three universities, who published their results in Journal of Consumer Research, April 2009, it is the long term erosion in customer willingness to pay for individual components.
Authors Michael A. Kamins (Stony Brook University-SUNY), Valerie S. Folkes (University of Southern California), and Alexander Fedorikhin (Indiana University) found that describing a bundled item as free decreases the amount consumers are willing to pay for each product when sold individually. They call this the “freebie devaluation” effect.
Why does a freebie decrease the price consumers are willing to pay for each individual product? Our research shows that consumers tend to make inferences about why they are getting such a great deal that detract from perceptions of product quality,” the authors explain. “For example, consumers figure the companies can’t sell the product without this marketing gimmick.” [quote Source].
In the case of Southwest’s bundle in which everything but the ticket is free, the research implies that customers will expect lower ticket prices if they want only parts of the bundle. A customer who is not checking in bags, in essence, is purchasing only one component of the bundle but is paying for the entire bundle. The “freebie devaluation” effect will push down customer’s willingness to pay for tickets when they do not need to check in bags.
What does it mean for Southwest? Unless their customer travel indicate that most customers check in bags they run the risk of lower ticket price expectations from their customers, further depressing their profits.
What does it mean to other marketers who throw in freebie? The same research provides the answer – there is no difference in customer willingness to pay for the bundle whether or not one or more of its components are marketed as freebies. So resist the temptation to increase sales by either throwing in freebies. If you are offering a bundle – you might as well price it same as the sum of the prices of the components.