This will be a nice reference price question to test for behavioral economists like the beer on the beach question by Daniel Kahneman. My hypothesis, you will find either no difference or higher price quoted for Target.
Run a split test with,
I am going to Target to get some stuff. I will get your Lactaid milk there. How much are you willing to pay?
I am going to Trader Joe’s to get some stuff. I will get your Lactaid milk there. How much are you willing to pay?
But I digress.
For those who are not aware, Lactaid is the brand of lactose reduced milk ( reduced using lactase enzyme). It is generally priced twice at much as regular milk. Instead of buying Lactaid, one could buy regular milk and lactase and mix it themselves. But what Lactaid offers is convenience and for the limited segment that wants milk despite their intolrenance and values convenience. So a higher price makes sense.
Lactaid is a national CPG brand, available in most stores. So why is it priced higher at Trader Joe’s?
Another argument is cost based. Target, a bigger retailer, has pricing power with suppliers. Since it can negotiate a lower price it can charge lower price to its customers. True but the cause and effect are reversed. Target wants to serve lot more customers that have lower willingness to pay. Once they decided the price they work with suppliers to bring the cost down. Not the other way. Think about prices of other products (granted not same brand). Does the cost argument holds?
One line of argument is, it is not just the product, it is the store experience. The price of store experience is built into the milk. Partly true. Then you must run the behavioral experiment I stated in the beginning.
The answer, as in most pricing cases, starts with the customer.
A Trader Joe’s customer goes there for different reasons than they go to Target (likely same customers but they hire the stores for different reasons). They go to Trader Joe’s for its unique product mix, experience etc. but definitely not for getting Lactaid milk. If I remember correctly that is the only major CPG brand I have seen at Trader Joe’s. Most of the product mix is made of store brands or smaller regional brands.
Those customers seeking to buy Lactaid at Trader Joe’s is looking for convenience. They are at the milk aisle for the rest of the family and want to complete their milk shopping list by avoiding one more trip to another store or its milk aisle.
There are likely not many such customers (most likely TJ’s customers are Target customers as well). So for that limited segment that values convenience and needs a specific product, the willingness to pay is higher.
Since they can charge this higher price they are likely willing to pay higher price to suppliers to stock the milk in their shelves.
No customers. No products.
Price always comes first then costs. And for pricing, customers and their needs come first, then everything else.
Explaining why it costs even more at Whole Foods is left as an exercise to the reader.