I believe “price war” may be a misnomer if both sides do not live to fight many rounds. We only see price battles or skirmishes that go for 1-2 rounds before one side throws in the towel or runs out of cash. There are two kinds of companies when it comes to price wars.
Category 1: There are just handful of companies that can wage incessant price war by consistently keeping their prices low
Category 2: Even fewer that can withstand such low price attacks by their competitors.
Amazon.com and Walmart fall into the first category. Apple is in the second category.
In fact if the two players know that the other has the will, reserve and wherewithal to keep up the fight without ever letting up they most likely will choose not to enter price war in the first place. This is very much like nuclear deterrent — mutually assured destruction.
BestBuy does not fall in either of the categories but was tempted to take on Wal-Mart with its iPhone 5 pricing. The result? BestBuy lost $65,000 in a single day.
Let alone the price war dynamics this is simply the wrong fight to pick. A tactical blunder.
First the product is not yours and the customer has many alternatives. Most are willing to pay full price at Apple stores. Customers do not think where they buy is important when it comes to iPhone (a qualifier is some insist they buy only after standing in line in front of Apple stores).
Second Walmart did not cut the price uniformly across all stores and did not make available unlimited quantities. Agreeing to match the price on such promotional tactic is simply wrong. It appears smart deal-seekers, instead of running from one Walmart store to another, simply walked into to neighborhood BestBuy and asked for the low price match. How convenient.
Finally, the low price was not attached to any other product sales and not designed as a loss leader that would help maximize customer margin.
And the result? Deal-seekers walked in, probably for the first time in many months, bought the $127 iPhone 5 and walked out without buying anything else. That is the $65,000 loss in a day.
See here for Waging Effective Price Wars.
See here for Effective Pricing