Nudging Customers to Choose the Right Version

[tweetmeme source="pricingright"]My favorite online survey platform is SurveyGizmo. Its pricing page shows five four different versions with special formatting for “Pro” version that tells us it is the most popular version. (Since I last wrote this article, SurveyGizmo has done an amazing job of re-designing their pricing page, presenting just 4 vs. 5 versions.)

Another example is BaseCamp, its pricing page shows four versions and  tells us its Plus version is the most popular. Are these examples of versioning strategy? Why will these marketers draw our attention to one specific version if they are offering us choices that we are supposed to self-select?
Let me start with a few definitions:

  • Versioning strategy is finding different customer segments and delivering different versions designed to appeal to each. For example there are customers who prefer a Acura and those that are happy with Civic.  Strategy means making choices. Since a marketer has only limited resources they have to make a choice which segments they can serve and what versions should they deliver to maximize profit.
  • Versioning tactics is second level of optimization, fine tuning if you will, after the strategy is chosen. For example different trim levels within Civic. This comes from sub-segmentation, recognizing there are still variances in customer types within a segment.  Versioning tactics help extract additional profit  from minor product variations. No significant resource commitments are needed.
  • Self Selection is offering customers multiple versions at different price points so they self select. When marketers cannot clearly tell which customer is which, they simply present they version with the assumption customers pick the right one. Self selection works when customers know (to an extent) the value they get from each version and whether that matches the price they are willing to pay for it. A rational customer will pick the one that leaves them “consumer surplus“.
  • Nudging is sending signals to the customer and applying many of consumer behavior methods to nudge them to choose the one the marketer wants. Nudging is important and effective when the customer does not know the value they get and whether or not the price they pay matches the value they get. When nudging is applied, usually there are three versions but these are not designed based on segmentation (i.e., not versioning strategy). These additional versions have just one role – help sell the real version. Despite multiple versions the marketer expects to sell only one which she highlights to draw customer’s attention to it.

In case of information goods (and sometimes for experience goods like Wine) customers do not know the value and do not know what price to pay. Customers must first understand what they are buying before they can tell what value they get (DeLong).  In such cases, when the customer is presented with just one version they do not know whether or not to buy it because there is no value information. Customers decide value  and price to pay by comparing  options so it helps to present them with more than one version.  How many versions? In his 1997 paper on versioning, Hal Varian, tells us  presenting three versions are better than two versions. The reason – extremeness aversion.  Varian labels three versions as Goldilocks pricing.

Unlike the tall, grande, venti (where customer can see value) it is not enough to depend on extremeness aversion to let the customers pick the “Pro” or the “Plus” version. Customers need to be nudged. The nudge could be either highlighting a version or  using conformity principle to tell a prospective customer that most customers bought a certain version. Sometime all such influence methods are applied.

What we are seeing with SurveyGizmo, BaseCamp  and many other similar services telling us the “Most Popular” version is Nudging!

Don’t  their Enterprise Edition and Dedicated version count as versioning strategy since they are targeting high end large enterprises?  It is correct that these are products that is designed for a different segment but I am not certain whether the enterprise segment makes its buying decisions through a website form like small businesses and individual customers do. I bet they have account managers to target the Enterprise segment.

Does your business practice Strategic versioining or  Nudging with Goldilocks Pricing?

14 thoughts on “Nudging Customers to Choose the Right Version

  1. Scott
    You might find the new book The Art of Choosing relevant and interesting to your “lots of subtle variations” issue you mention in your comment.
    The book is about choice, choice proliferation, how people choose and the cognitive costs to customers due to choice.
    One recommendation, author Sheena Iyengar makes, is categorization of options and listing from very simple to most complicated options.

    Just a thought.
    The book link is



  2. Scott
    Thanks for the detailed reply. I am surprised to hear that even Enterprise customers go thru website without the account managers. I wonder if they are all acting for their own group vs. entire org.
    I do agree that the SurveyGizmo versions differ in features (question features, survey flexibility, email campaign etc), usage and other dimensions (responses). I bet you are looking at the usage data to see what features are used most within each version to simplify the versioning.
    Go Boulder!


  3. Hi Rags (and Stephan),

    Interesting article. Plan differentiation and pricing is a challenging topic for us SurveyGizmo, but I suspect for most SaaS companies. You might be interested to know that we do if fact have more customers (though not revenue) in our Pro level than the other plans. We also find it fascinating that the percentage of customers in each plan has hardly varied at all since we started four years ago. So from that perspective it is truly the “Most popular”. We also add the “Most Popular” to the chart in an effort to make the choices seem less daunting. When in doubt choose Pro and you’ll most like be fine is the message we try to get across.

    You might also find it surprising that a large segment of the Enterprise prospects do make their decision from the website without account managers. We don’t currently do any outbound sales. We simply try to help people make the best educated decision from the website, phone, chat or email regardless of which plan they are interested in.

    We wish we had as simple a time as Basecamp differentiating plans (they seem to have it down to quantities of projects and storage and one feature time tracking). We have hundreds of features and try to look for sensible ways to divide them. Early on went down a path of giving “a little bit” of a feature to lower plan and a “more robust version” of a feature to a higher plan. This has lead to lots of subtle variations from one plan to another. We’re considering changing this in a few broad categories and placing a category solely in one plan type. In that model there would be winners and losers about where a feature ends up. It’s an interesting challenge to make customer choices both simple and providing the most flexibility. I would love to hear what your readers think.

    To Stephan the “help Me Choose” wizard was a valiant but failed attempt to help prospects to the website figure out which plan is right for them. It’s one of the most common questions to our sales line and we’re very happy to walk people through the decision to make sure they find something that fits their needs and budget. We know there are some folks who don’t want to pick up the phone for fear of being sold to which we don’t do, but the wizard was supposed to help with that. It turned out to be complex and probably only helps a small segement of people. Please just call us we don’t bite! If any one has questions about online survey accounts feel free ring. 720-496-2990 (ask for sales, support, or even me!)

    Thanks and keep up the interesting articles.


    Scott McDaniel
    CEO, SurveyGizmo


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